History of the Black Death - asian history of facial mask
In the 1300 s, the world was attacked by a deadly disease called Black Death.
This is one of the worst disasters ever.
It is estimated that 30 people have died in Europe.
The disease, also known as the disaster and plague, is believed to have originated in Central Asia and swept across Europe in the late 1340 century.
This terrible disease not only causes a large number of deaths, but also causes many minority groups to be blamed and persecuted for "causing" black death.
In modern times, when we see millions of people around the world dying from AIDS, recently threatened by the possible epidemic of swine flu (SARS), and now facing the spread of the deadly Ebola virus, it is important to look back at the past pandemic, such as Black Death, and see how people deal with these disasters.
We can admire 1300 of men and women for doing the right thing to fight the Black Death bravely and learn from their mistakes (for example, attacking minorities ). Early 1340s -October 1347 -January 1348 -June 1348 -1348-50 -1351 -1347-51 -
A nuclear war!
"The Black Death is the equivalent of a nuclear war in the 14 th century.
It wiped out one.
Europe's third-largest population has claimed millions of lives. --Norman F.
Since the 1330 century, Europe has heard rumors about the "Great Plague" in the Near East and Far East (later known as Black Death.
From there, the disease reaches Europe by invading Mongolian troops or spreading it by sea. -or both.
One claim is that the disease arrived in the city of Kafa in Crimea on 1347 with invading Mongolian troops.
The Mongols reportedly found infected bodies on the city wall.
The Genoa businessman fled cabana by boat, traveled to Sicily in southern Italy, and took away the black death.
From there, the disease spread throughout Europe, mainly through trade ships to the ports of major countries: first, northern Italy (Pisa, Rome, Florence, etc ).
France (Marseille, Bordeaux, Lyon, Paris), Britain, Germany, Scandinavia and Russia.
[Victims of black death] \ "have lunch with their friends and eat in heaven with their ancestors. --
Symptoms of people infected with black death include swelling of lymph nodes in the armpit, groin and neck. .
After the appearance of cloth, there was acute fever and vomiting in the blood, and most of the victims died two to seven days after the infection. (c.
The symptoms are as follows: there is a bubo in the groin where the thigh meets the torso;
Or small swelling under the arm; sudden fever;
Vomiting blood and saliva (the person who vomited blood did not survive ).
\ "Couldn't find a doctor because they died like everyone else.
Those found wanted a lot of money before entering the house. (. . .
) The child abandoned the father, the husband abandoned the wife, the wife abandoned the husband, one abandoned the brother, and the other abandoned the sister. --
The first shocking sign of a Black Death in Europe is that 12 ships from Crimea docked at the port of Messina in Sicily.
Almost all the sailors on board are dead.
The rest are very ill.
With the Black Death sweeping across one country after another, the scene of complete destruction has become commonplace.
Black Death disease ]. . .
In the end, it spread to the whole of the UK, wasting the lives of those who lack the tenth person of any kind.
When the neighbor opened the house (with the huge stench coming from it), the whole family was found dead inside.
To make matters worse, almost all the population of the whole town died.
Then, the terrible plague spread along the coast of Southampton, reaching Bristol, and almost all the people in the town died because it was surprised by the sudden death. . .
In London, the streets are not cleaned, and all the street sweepers are dead.
On the main streets of many towns, the grass grows very high.
There were few sheep left behind in large areas of rural land, and they also died of black death.
The doctor was confused about the Black Death.
The University of Paris Medical School published a report accusing the combination of three planets in 1345.
Another report said: "When the air spirit escapes from the patient's eyes, instant death hits healthy people standing nearby watching the patient ".
Techniques for treating black death include blood.
Getting and boiling lancing (this technique is actually dangerous when onlookers get more exposure to plague bacteria ).
Other techniques include burning (to disperse "bad air") in fangvanilla medicine and bathing in rose water or vinegar.
: This form took its name from buboes (lymph node swelling) that appeared in the victim's armpit, groin and neck.
Victims of this form usually die within seven days. bacterium.
These fleas are attached to mice and passed on to humans.
: This form attacks the victim's respiratory system before the rest of his body. ) of a victim.
: Including the form of blood poisoning.
Make the spread of black death more serious.
In towns with a population of 1300, people live together.
Most people don't know that Black Death is contagious, they should keep a distance from others and cover their mouths when they sneeze (this behavior will help protect them from pneumonia Black Death ).
Public health is poor.
Garbage is dumped on the streets and sewage flows directly into rivers and streams.
Farm animals like pigs often wander the streets.
Rat (carrier of bubble-
Fleas) roam freely.
The handling of the body was rough.
Porters and gravediggers did not cover themselves, resulting in a high death rate among them.
It was not until the 19 th century that medicine realized the importance of good hygiene, quarantine and better public health and urban planning measures to stop the spread of Black Death and other forms of plague.
Black deaths have killed between 75 and 0. 2 billion people in Europe, Asia and Africa.
Contemporary reports continue to tell the number of people killed.
The plague completely destroyed the villages, cities, castles and towns of their inhabitants, and almost no one lived.
Exact number of people--
Percentage of population-
Being killed is still a matter of speculation.
Philip Dade wrote in 2007 that recent research suggests
50% of the population in Europe died in four years, with some regions (Italy, Spain, southern France: 75-
80%) higher, lower some (Germany, UK: 20%.
It is estimated that in the Middle East,
Three of them died.
It was used in Europe around 150.
Since 250, in some regions
For the recovery of the population.
So many people have died, and most of the bodies have been buried. -
No identification tag, no Holy Office-
In the mass graves (large pits in which the bodies are layered, some of which are as deep as five floors ).
Only a few lucky people were buried in the coffin.
Europe was a feudal society in the Middle Ages, and the church had great power.
In difficult times, ordinary people seek guidance from the church.
The priest will advise their flock on how to deal with the problems in their lives.
They will also explain the meaning of war, famine and other disasters and how they still believe in the just God.
When the black death comes, many church officials think it is God's punishment for human sin, so people should not resist this disaster but accept it.
When people were knocked down by the Black Death, individual priests bravely comforted their congregation, many of whom paid for their devotion with their own lives.
The friars live in a nearby monastery where patients often run away for help, where the black death caused a huge death toll.
The church is losing a lot of authority: the priest does not seem to have an answer, and kindness and evil, greatness and humility seem to be equal victims of black death.
Moreover, due to the death or illness of so many priests, there is little performance of the duties of the church, and very little execution of the laws of the divine or secular.
The pope authorized the whip flag Group (beating its own believers with a whip) to walk around the country and preach repentance for their crimes.
Whip flag began to gain so much influence in the general population that when they spoke on religious issues, they began to compete with the authority of the Pope.
The Catholic hierarchy poses a threat to the power of the church and controls them.
When this terrible disaster occurs, the doctor is unable to provide any treatment, and the priest is unable to provide a real explanation of how the merciful God allows this suffering to occur.
Many began to believe that black death must be some kind of divine punishment and revenge for human sin.
Some people think they have to clear their pagans and other troublemakers.
They turned against ethnic minorities. -
Violence is frequent.
People target groups such as "Jews, friars, foreigners, beggars, pilgrims" and Gypsy and lepers.
Of the 1349 Jews, for example, 2,000 were murdered in Strasburg, and further killings took place in Cologne and Mainz.
Jews sometimes seem to be less prone to black death (this may be due to the fact that certain Jewish communities maintain higher hygiene standards and that Jews often live in ghettoes, relatively isolated from the rest of society.
Rumors about ethnic minorities are also spreading (for example, Jews are accused of poisoning wells )--
This led to more persecution.
In view of the great suffering that this disease brings, "the authority of human beings and divine law has almost disappeared "---
Priests and other powerful men die like ordinary people.
The church has lost a great deal of authority, and since no one is enforcing religious and secular laws around it, many people are beginning to feel that they can do whatever they want.
For example, people start to enter any house, whether they own it or not, and occupy it.
The class tries to purify their souls by joining the whip flag parade wandering from town to town, in the public confession display, whip flo himself with inlaid leather straps, and make his own
In this way, they hope that God will forgive them and that they will not die of black death.
Whip flag was initially a general expression of discontent with the control of the church, and a form of lack of response to the problems of the people (here they are suffering from an epidemic ).
Over time, the whip ant movement became a popular form of frenzy, and when thousands of people came to a town they joined the whip flag parade.
The whip flag has developed a series of ceremonies that they insist on following.
They beat themselves until the blood came out.
The blood was wiped clean by the clothes they claimed to be holy objects.
They claim that their activity is justified by the letter written by the angel.
The Soemtimes authorities noticed that when the whip flag arrived in their town, they seemed to have a black death.
Although the Catholic Church initially tolerated the whip flag movement (which some monks and nuns joined), it later realized that the whip flag's beliefs were often inconsistent with the official Catholic doctrine, which gained many followers.
They also saw the dangers of social order at that time.
Therefore, Pope Clement VI ordered the suppression of the whip flag in the Bull issued on 1349, and on 1372 Pope Gregory XI declared the whip flag as a heretic (because he claimed to have created miracles, because of the suspicion of the necessity of the sacrament and the jurisdiction against the structure of the church ).
(3): A Life of restraint;
They form small communities and live completely apart from others.
They keep themselves in a house without patients, eat the best food, drink the best wine and avoid any excess. . .
Many people have adopted the opposite strategy: hedonism.
They think that the way to treat the plague is to drink and be happy, to sing and entertain themselves, to satisfy every appetite they have, to laugh and laugh at what is happening.
British underclass workers have been living a miserable life under the feudal system.
Their lives are called serfdom, which is actually a slave system.
Black Death reduced the amount of labor available on the land.
The workers are demanding higher wages and better conditions.
The upper class resisted this, and the King (King Edward III) tried to suppress these demands by introducing a new law, the labor code, in 1351.
The struggle of the workers continued and eventually led to the peasant uprising (1381 ).
Although the peasant uprising was suppressed, the workers finally won the battle and the serfdom ended by about 1400.
The Black Death and its endless suffering profoundly affected European culture in the late Middle Ages.
After 1350, art and literature became dark and pessimistic and often focused on death.
(See one example above), showing death under the guise of choosing the next victim with bones, is a common theme in late medieval art.
A fable about the universality of death
In this theme, we usually see a figure of death, leading dance figures from all walks of life to the grave, some rich people, some poor people, some old people, some young people.
The potential message we learn from the Black Death is that no matter what position we are in life, life is very fragile, what we have achieved on Earth is that we are all dancing towards the fate of death.
The dance of death brings us together.
Describe the fear, terror and social unrest in Europe after the Black Death.
In literary works, many graphic descriptions of the pain of death and its aftermath ---
For example, in the works of Chaucer, Lanlan, Boca Chio and Petrak.