psychotropic medications and the facial mask image how sleep disorders impact health in trauma survivors

psychotropic medications and the facial mask image how sleep disorders impact health in trauma survivors
Sleep disorders are common among trauma survivors who can aggravate depression and post-traumatic depression, increase symptom learning, and have a negative impact on health (Krakow et al )., 2000;Roberts et al., 2000).In a sample of a female rape survivorTrauma Stress DisorderAssociated sleep disorders have an independent effect on health, even after controlling depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (Clum, Nishith and Resick, 2001.In this article, I describe our understanding of traumaRelated sleep disorders, why they are related to health, and how the treatment addresses these difficulties.What is sleep disorder?The term "sleep disorder" covers a wide range of issues.Some diseases were measured by patient questionnaires.Other needs to be measured by a multi-guide sleep map study that records life signs and other physiological measurements at night.Multi-guide sleep map studies include EEG (EEG) for measuring brain wave activity, EMG for measuring muscle activity, and EOGEye maps) measure eye movements.Other measures include breathing airflow, pulse, heart rate, body position and breathing effort.The study of multi-guide sleep maps is necessary to find problems such as sleepRespiratory disorder (e.g.Sleep apneas) and sleep-Motor disorder (e.g., restless-leg syndrome).Patients are generally unaware of these and therefore cannot report through the patient questionnaire.Sleep disorders can be divided into three categories.• Insomnia.Insomnia refers to the inability to sleep or to maintain a state of sleep.Life stress, worries, or depression often contribute to this.Insomnia can also be caused by lifestyle factors such as taking a nap during the day, or excessive caffeine intake.• Hypersomnia.Excessive sleep refers to excessive drowsiness during the day, which is related to diseases such as sleep suspension.• Parasomnias.Parasomnias is an abnormal behavior that occurs during sleep.These include sleep walking, molars (molars), and nightmares that occur during REM sleep.Several recent studies have documented the quality of sleep among trauma survivors.In a community sample, 68% survivors of sexual abuse reported having difficulty sleeping and 45% survivors had repeated nightmares (Teegan, 1999 ).Hulme (2000) found that sleep problems in sexual abuse survivors are common at the primary stagecare sample.Fifty-2% of sexual abuse survivors reported that they could not sleep at night and 36% reported nightmares.53% of sexual abuse survivors reported images of sudden thoughts or past events, and invasive symptoms were common.In a sample of abused women living in shelters (N = 50), 70% reported poor sleep quality and 28% were very tired when they went to bed, 40% of people wake up feeling very neylan & Marmar, 1999 ).In addition, 82% describe one or more of the following features of restless sleep: many crying, restless sleep and early sleep at nightmorning waking.Six of them described the recent abuse.
In a study on sleep disorders among sexual assault survivors, 80% of people either had insufficient sleepBreathing or sleepMovement disorder.Both diseases are linked to higher levels of depression and suicide.Women with these two types of sleep disorders have the most severe symptoms.The authors speculate that fragmented sleep can exacerbate the symptoms of women after sexual assault and make it harder for them to cope (Krakow et al )., 2000).These authors point out that due to poor sleep medicine,Combined with trauma therapy, if practitioners also treat potential sleep disorders, their effect is generally not as good as theirs.They pointed out that psychoactive drugs may mask the performance of sleep disorders and further noted that clinicians may unconsciously aggravate mental disorders they are trying to treat by prescribing them first.How sleep affects healthy sleep quality has many negative effects on health.It damages immune, metabolic, and neuroendocrine functions and activates the lower Qiu for a long time-pituitary-Increased risk of death (Carmichael & Reis, 2005 ).McEwen (2003) pointed out that even a brief interruption of sleep can damage your health.Sleep disruption increases the level of cortical hormone at night, increases blood sugar and insulin levels, and increases insulin resistance.People with poor long-term sleep are more likely to have car accidents. in people with chronic diseases, lack of sleep indicates greater functional disability and a decline in quality of life.It's no surprise that people with bad sleep use more medical services than people who don't sleep wellsleep-Persons deprived of their rights (Stepanski, Rybarczyk, Lopez and Stevens, 2003 ).Smith and his colleagues (2000) describe the overlap between sleep and pain, and the relationship is likely to be two-wayDirectionality: pain interferes with sleep, and sleep disorders increase the experience of pain.Sleep problems may also reduce the ability of patients to cope with chronic pain.In their study of 51 patients with chronic pain, 88% reported some complaints about sleep.Pre-Regardless of the degree of pain, sleep cognitive overawakening is the best predictor of sleep quality.This includes racing ideas, invasive ideas, cognitive depression, and worry.Sleep disorder also affects immune function by increasing the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines.High levels of inflammation increased fatigue during the day, and the body experienced sleep disturbances as a source of physiological stress, further increasing inflammation (Konsman, Parnt, & Dantzer, 2002 ).In a sleep study for patients with severe depressive disorder, inflammation is associated with sleep disorders.Extended sleep latency and REM density (two markers that interfere with sleep) are better predictors of inflammatory levels compared to depressive symptoms.The authors conclude that sleep disorder is at least part of the cause of elevated inflammation in patients with depression (Motivala, Safati, Olmos and Irwin, 2005 ).Inflammation increases the risk of heart disease and diabetesTackett, 2007).Treatment of sleep disorders (1996) it is recommended that systematic assessment of sleep be included in all psychological assessments.They recommend that practitioners ask about the incidence of sleep disorders and the chronological order of the occurrence of sleep disorders and mental disorders.Are the symptoms of mental illness before or contrary to sleep problems?The study of multiple sleep maps can also reveal whether there is sleep.Breathing or sleepMovement disorders that can also be treated.These conditions are usually improved through medication and/or assistive devices.However, cognitionBehavioral intervention is appropriate for most sleep problems.In a recent review, 70% to 80% of patients were effective, comparable to sleep drugs (Morin, 2004;Stepanski & Perlis, 2000 ).Cognitive-Behavioral interventions help sleep because they can change during rapid eye movement sleep.Cognitive approaches can also address concerns and thoughts that may be the basis of primary or secondary insomnia (Morin & Ware, 1996 ).Cognitive therapy for insomnia consists of three components: behavior, cognition and education.Behavioral aspects include establishing normal sleeping time, do not do anything with a bed other than sleeping and having sex, get up when you can't sleep, and don't take a nap during the day.Sleep-Health education helps people reduce behaviors that can interfere with sleep.This may include the elimination of caffeine, exercise, alcohol and smoking before going to bed (Morin, 2004;Stepanski & Perlis, 2000 ).Stress reduction includes relaxing components that focus on autonomous relaxation techniques (E.G.g., Progressive muscle relaxation) and cognitive techniques address concerns that keep people from sleeping.Combination of cognition, behavior and stressFor most patients with sleep disorders, the reduction method is effective.Conclusion sleep disorder is another common effect of trauma, which increases the health problems of trauma survivors.By identifying possible sleep disorders, doctors can help patients reduce or even eliminate them.Solving sleep problems can lead to reduced symptoms and improved overall health.C.L., & Reis, H.T.(2005).Effects of attachment, quality of sleep and depression.24,526-Health Psychology531.Clum, G.A., Nishith, P., & Resick, P.A.(2001).Trauma-Related sleep disorders and selfPhysical health symptoms reported during treatmentSeeking female rape victimsJournal of neurological and mental disorders, 189,618-622.Hulme, P.A.(2000).Symptoms and health utilization of women primary care patients who experienced childhood sexual abuse.Abuse and neglect of children, 1471-1484.Humphreys, J.C., Lee, K.A., Neylan, T.C., & Marmar, C.R.(1999).Sleep patterns of abused women who are sheltered.Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 31,139-143.
Kendall-Tackett, K.A.(2007).Cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome as sequelae of violence against women: a method of psychological and neuroimmunology.Trauma, Violence and abuse in the media.Konsman, J.P., Parnet, P., & Dantzer, R (2002 ).Cytokine-Induced Disease behavior: mechanism and influence.Trends in Neuroscience, 154-158.Krakow, B., Artar, A., Warner, T.D., Melendez, D., Johnston, L.Hollyfield, M., Gemain, A., & Koss, M.(2000).Sleep disorders, depression and suicide among female sexual assault survivors.Crisis, 163-170.McEwen, B.S.(2003).Emotional disorder and abnormal load.Biological Psychiatry, 200-207.Morin, C.M.(2004).Cognitive-The behavior of treating insomnia.Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65 [SUPL], 33-40.Morin, C.M., & Ware, J.C.(1996).Sleep and psychiatryApplied and Preventive Psychology, 211-224.Motivala, S.J., Safati, A., Olmos, L., & Irwin, M.R.(2005).Inflammatory indicators and sleep disorders in patients with depression.Medicine of mind and body, 67,187-194.Roberts, R.E., Shema, S.J., Kaplan, G.A.W. stroubridgeJ.(2000).Sleep complaints and depression in older groups: a forward-looking view.American Journal of Psychiatry, 157,81-88.Smith, M.T., Perlis, M.L., Smith, M.S., Giles, D.E., & Carmody, T.P.(2000).Sleep quality in chronic pain and pre-sleep awakening.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 1-13.Stepanski, E.J., & Perlis, M.L.(2000).Behavioral Sleep Medicine: an emerging branch of health psychology and sleep medicine.Journal of Physical and mental research, 343-347.Stepanski, E.J., Rybarczyk, B., Lopez, M., & Stevens, S.(2003).Assessment and treatment of sleep disorders in the elderly: a review by Rehabilitation psychologists.Psychology of rehabilitation, 48, 2336.Teegen, F.(1999).Child sexual abuse and long termterm sequelae.In A.Maercker, M.Schutzwohl & Z.Solomon (Eds.) Post-traumatic stress disorder: a view on life span development97-112).Seattle: hoggrave and Huber.
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