psychotropic medications and the facial mask image trauma in adolescent populations - selfgrowth.com
This paper will describe a variety of different ways of treating adolescent trauma.Treatment treatment is intended to cover the whole person in a holistic way of healing.It takes into account the body, soul and spirit in the traumatic experience.All wounds affect the whole person: the spirit, the body and the soul.Therefore, we cannot completely heal from any trauma unless we deal with how trauma affects our emotions and spirits.Trauma DefinedTrauma has established Levin and Crane (P. 2007.4) like "... Any experience that surprised us;It crushed us and made us change and out of our bodies.They went on to say, "While the size of the source of stress is clearly an important factor, it does not define trauma.This is because (p.4) "trauma is not in the event itself;Rather, trauma is present in the nervous system.Lee, Taylor and Drummond (P. 2006)105) point out, "... When an event is sufficiently aroused to prevent it from coding to semantic memory as plot memory, post-traumatic stress disorder occurs.At the heart of the post-traumatic stress disorder is extreme stress that causes the body's nervous system to become over-excited and has the potential to fight, freeze or escape due to threats or dangers.This is a normal response in most cases.However, if the physical symptoms of this highly awakened state do not subside after hours, days or weeks of post-traumatic trauma (Rothschild, 2003 ).In an article by Clinton (Page 2006)98) trauma is defined as "... When we think of it or it being triggered by the current event, any event that evokes difficult emotions and/or physical symptoms, generate negative beliefs, desires, fantasies, coercion, obsession, addiction and/or separation, block or hinder the growth of positive qualities and spiritual connections and development, and undermine the whole of humanity.There are many communication systems in our bodies and brains that can help different parts work properly.In 1980s, medicine began to realize that we had a communication system called a ligand in our body.The receptor system, which involves communication between neurons, hormones, intestines and stomach and the immune system, is transmitted to other parts of our body through peptides and Messenger-specific peptide receptors (Smith, 2002.The study also found that all peptides made in other parts of the white blood cell manufacturing system (5-amine, dopamine, de-adrenaline, endorph, etc ).), The idea of a person can directly affect the function of the ligandReceptor system (Smith, 2002 ).Negative thoughts can increase the level of cortical hormone (stress hormone) and reduce the production of immune cells, while positive thoughts can increase the production of immune cells, endorph, dopamine, sex hormones, others in the blood (Smith, 2002 ).Smith (p.5) wrote, "it is becoming more and more clear that our control center is not only a place, but also a process involving the interaction between the brain, hormones, biochemistry and the environment.This is intense, unpredictable, and constant emphasis on creating a chaotic biochemical environment that keeps the brain completely mature with information from the various centers of a brain (Stein & Kendall, 2004 ).When there is a constant shortage of informationThe brain system (from right to left hemisphere, from cognition to emotion) is not fully mature.When you add these trauma-related brain failure processes to the adolescent brain, as described below, it is necessary to think carefully about what treatment should be used to treat young people who are suffering from trauma.Acute threats or dangers can cause the neurotransmission of the brain's marginal system to alert the body's autonomous nervous system, in turn, to activate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS, prepare for combat, escape, or escape.Blood flows from the skin and organs to the muscles to activate this response.However, when fighting or flying is not an option, The Edge system may signal to ANS to activate the peripheral nervous system (PNS ).In this case, SNS continues to maintain its high wake-up state (Rothschild, 2003) when the PNS freeze the movements of the body ).When a person freezes, it seems to cause more psychological harm than a combat or escape reaction, and who will develop the ground (Rothschild, p.7 )...... "Excessive awakening in SNS and PNS lasts for a long time, or is easily caused by internal or environmental triggers ".As many psychological theories say, physical memory is the interaction between the brain and the nervous system of the body.Hippocampus and almond are two parts of the brain involved in the memory of traumatic events.The almond body is responsible for recording the emotions of high excitement and identifying their physical sensations (Rothschild ).These memories are not stored in the almond body, and they need to be processed through the almond body in order to be recorded as implicit memory in the cerebral cortex.The hippocampus is a necessary condition for storing information so that we can recognize memory in time and space.Memory is also not stored here, but needs to be processed through this brain system to be recorded as explicit memory (Rothschild) in the cortex ).Stress hormones can inhibit the activity of the hippocampus, prevent the context from attaching to memory, and prevent past experiences (p."... Anchor in time.They seem to float freely and often invade now ".Rothschild wrote11), "in the absence of hippocampus activity, the memory of unresolved traumatic events may be retained only in the implicit memory system.Images, feelings, and emotions can all be stimulated, but they cannot be described (coherent) or understood without explicit memory system participation.It is this mechanism that leads to the flashback symptoms of trauma-as it is now to revisit the onset of trauma.Dr.Jay Giedd, head of brain imaging at NIMH, studied the brains of 1,800 adolescents and found that the brain matured close to 25 years old, and impulsive behavior during adolescence was due to strong hormone secretion and late development of decision-making --Part of the brain (Howard, 2006 ).In adolescence, then around the age of 25, is the highest age for a person's brain density (gray matter), and is also the time to trim, to make a person lose his ability and improve his efficiency (Howard, 2006 ).We get the speed of transmission due to this pruning, but we lose the ability to recover from trauma (p.95).Howard (2006) wrote that adolescents deal with emotions and instructions in a different way than adults, and that the almond body (emotional center) has more activity than adults, normally, they deal with their emotions in the frontal lobe (center of reason.Teenagers also find it more difficult to explain these emotions to others.In adolescence, elevated levels of dopamine increase the desire to participate in risk --Act.This is a combination of "excess brain capacity, mature sensory cortex, rampant sex hormones, and elevated dopamine", and the later development of mature modules ...... This can lead to problematic behavior (Howard, p.94).Stan and Kendall (P. 2004)137) emphasize the importance of helping children deal with trauma in as many ways as possible (E.G.g.Images, thoughts, emotions, feelings and movements) and help children enter the two hemisphere through various activities to help integrate trauma.Another major problem that teens and people of all ages may have is a recurring nightmare.Meta-analysis of the nightmare process (Levin & Nielsen, 2007) reveals some amazing facts about differences in dream state and post-nightmare effects, including the specifics of the teen population.Levin and Nelson489) wrote, "both clinical and research draw attention to the importance of assessing nightmare pain in defining pathology and distinguishing the number and severity of pre-traumatic quality.The study further emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between nightmares (nightmares of wake-up sleepers) and nightmares (nightmares of not wake-up sleepers."This is important for the youth group.The number of nightmares of adolescent youth is three to four times the number of older groups, which can be a repeat of actual trauma and all its physical and emotional pain (Levin and Nelson ).The actual waking state is similar to that of freezing, avoiding the processing of traumatic substances.Another finding of dream research is that these painful nightmares can last for a long timeThe lasting effect adds negative wake-up and pain over the next few hours and days (Levin and Nelson ).Nightmares seem to be more frequent, more common among psychiatric people, and often there is a link between nightmares and mental illness that can occur immediately before a psychiatric attack (Levin and Nelson ).The frequency of nightmares can be up to 6 times a week and can last for 40-if no treatment is sought-50 years after traumaThe nightmare can trigger certain neurotransmission, stress hormones, and change many body systems.After the nightmare, the frightened reflex will be higher and will last for several days.Levin and Nielsen say these overexcited responses may involve more defensive responses and less visual perception.Levin and Nelson502) then said, "... Post-traumatic trauma patients may spend more cognitive, behavioral, and emotional effort managing over-awakening and responsiveness to the point where they exhaust or exhaust their emotions and levels such as PCBs.Therapists, teachers and parents should take these factors into account when working with teenagers.In most cases, developmental levels in patients with complex post-traumatic depression due to early child abuse and neglect suggest that almost every developmental line is interrupted (Segall, 2005, p.148) wrote, "... There is interference in the biological regulation of emotional awakening, Xiqiu-pituitary-And the immune system;The stability and continuity of memory, attention process and consciousness;Regulate sleep, appetite and sexual desire;in self-Soothing, identity formation, self-regulationesteem;In planning, selfManagement and performance of healthHouse repair-Maintain, budget, academic and professional activities;in the self-The regulation of intimacy and control, and the maintenance of boundary and stable emotional ties in interpersonal relationships.The main construction of exercise-reduction and reprocessing (EMDR) includes elements of other psychotherapy, such as mental motivation, cognition-Human behaviorcentered, body-A treatment method based on and interaction that guides patients through different traumatic factors while moving the eyes back and forth (Shapiro & Maxfield, 2002 ).EMDR by an 8-Stage treatment of clients through physical sensations, emotions, and cognition associated with trauma, slowing cognition in such a way that is sufficient to deal with both physical and emotional sensations and create clear memories at the same time.This primarily non-verbal approach stimulates activity between the hemisphere of the brain, making it possible to recall physical and cognitive memory as a whole (Maxwell, 2003 ).The intervention strategies involved in EMDR include eightStage treatment.The first phase focuses on the collection of customer history and treatment plans.The second phase involves the interpretation of EMDR treatment protocols and theories.The third stage is an assessment of the baseline level of emotional trauma.The fourth is the sensitivity reduction of emotional and physical reactions.Fifth, the installation of reprocessing materials.Six is to resolve the residual physical tension.The seventh is to summarize the debriefing, and the eighth is to evaluate.One of the great advantages of using EMDR for treatment is that the therapist does not have to deal with only the actual trauma, but can also treat the nightmare.The protocol applies to post-processing of trauma materials, regardless of form, and also to the installation of positive materials such as "safe place" images with color, vision, sound, smell and temperatureIn the studies conducted by Lee, Taylor, and Drummond (2006), the change process of EMDR appears to involve the dual focus of attention in the lost and alienated phases.Pairing eye movements with memory helps customers reduce the vividness of images and the negativity of emotions, and eye movements can produce a relaxation response (Lee et al ).).Foa, Keane and Friedman (2000) reviewed 7 published randomized controlled efficacy studies on EMDR and found it to be more effective than waitinglist, routine-Nursing and active treatment control.Superpersonal theory is different in many ways from other psychological theories because it holds a very different philosophical worldview (Capuzzi & Gross, 2007 ).The theory does not rule out other treatments;Instead, they include all the therapeutic interventions needed during the course of treatment (behavioural, psychoanalytic, humanitarian, Jungian analysis, and Oriental philosophy) (Capuzzi & Gross, 2007 ).Although this theory contains other theories, it believes that other theories are limited in their view of human experience and potential.Strive to achieve a higher state of survival in the course of therapeutic intervention and superpersonal theory (p394) "... It mainly includes the two-yuan and one-yuan method (two-yuan) of trying to reconcile human divinity and human nature, as well as revealing the source of a person's real existence and the inner unity of all existence (one yuan ).The intervention strategies of this theory are conducive to dealing with adolescent trauma, including meditation, mindfulness, intuition, yoga, biological feedback, breathing training, meditation, inward focus, visualization, dream work, guide changes in image and state of consciousness (Capuzzi & Gross ).Mindfulness is in a state of pure concern, due to an enhanced perception of physical processes, emotions, feelings, thoughts, the process of experiencing and improving traumatic conditions, and emotional cues (Segall, 2005 ).This expansion of the state of consciousness has helped individuals find a new sense of vitality that can eventually stop using numbness, separation and avoidance behaviors to cope with their wounds.Since mindfulness and meditation exercises help a person monitor their thought processes, physical and emotional experiences may be another focus of these exercises.In the youth group, "the regulation of social behavior requires awareness of internal emotional states such as attraction, anxiety, shame or anger, and awareness of external cues such as facial expressions, changes in body language and sound (Segall, p.149).The process of change in superpersonal theory focuses on overcoming the problems of people's lives so that the main work of spiritual integration and/or self-integrationThe realization can begin to lead customers to a higher level of creativity, compassion, selflessness and wisdom (Capuzzi & Gross ).However, in order to reach the level of these individual transitions, you first need to be able to have a complete sense of self.Mindfulness is one of the most helpful ways to achieve this, as it allows a person to move forward at the rate permitted by his or her own tolerance (Segall, 2005 ).Consciousness, similar to mindfulness, is itself an energy associated with the expression of cells in the body and involved in the continuous creation of health or disease (Gerber, 2001 ).Somatic (body-Consultation centered on expression) and the art of expression approach, focusing on reuniting the body and mind through the use of meditation, massage, art, dance, drama, writing, sound, taste, etc, vision, touch and sound (Capuzzi & Gross, 2007 ).Ponton (page 2004)10) in an interview with Besel van del Cork, wrote: "The imprint of trauma is the mark on people's senses, in people's systems ...... This becomes particularly important because these feelings remain in the memory of people and remain in an unprocessed state.If you do effective trauma treatment, the personal smell, sound, images and physical impressions of the trauma will slowly disappear over time, and that's something that doesn't happen to speak.It happens by working with people's physical state."The construction of this theory focuses on integrating experience in trauma.This approach mainly uses two types of interventions, including focusing on listening and feeling the body, and moving the body to discharge traumatic substances.Focus on the body and mind through meditation, yoga, tai chi and visualization.Move the body through dance, drama, reproduction, etc.Pointon (p.12) wrote, "This work may take the form of dance, action, or martial arts training for children and young people-all in order to enhance their abilities and help them stay down-to-earth andAnother way is to tell the story and/or write.In this strategy, the person tries to understand what has happened to him or her through story writing or story telling.Peter Levin (Bolton)'s discussion about the process of change includes the ability to release traumatic energy from areas in the body that "lock" traumatic energy, and the type of intervention that can be achieved by physically acquiring this energy and releasing it in many different ways.With children, use yourselfWhen expressing a painting, the prefrontal cortex is active, which provides another way to symbolically represent trauma and may help restore lost imagination (Bolton ).Wieland (1998) recommends that body therapy be used as a way for children to reconnect to a disrupted normal developmental process.Due to stress in the traumatic experience, the body's hormones and neurotransmitters are altered by other factors such as stress hormones, disruption of sleep patterns, and medication and mental instability.Stress can drain the body's vitamins and minerals and significantly weaken its defense system.It is important to balance the diet and supplement the intake of vitamins and minerals with natural supplements.The stronger the body, the easier it will be to deal with stress and emotional pain from most trauma.Herbal supplements can help relax and restore the nervous system.Mabey (1988) wrote two types of herbs that help the nervous system;Relaxation and recovery agents, the use of more limited doping.Herbal laxatives include fragrant flowers, valerian, crampbark, hops, and chrysanthemum.Herbal remedies include verbena, ull, Wild Oats, and ginseng.When the nervous system is depleted and weak, the recovery agent helps to restore the nervous system, such as what often happens after trauma.It's always important to talk to your doctor before starting any new diet, exercise plans and/or herbal supplements.Exercise is another important aspect of a healthy lifestyle and helps strengthen the body and brain center.Exercise can improve the level of the brain in the 5-5 and other neurons and give a good sense of the wholebeing.Most health experts recommend exercising at least thirty minutes a day at least four days a week.This case study focuses on 11-year-Elderly male (Steven) who lived in a house of mentally unstable children at the first meeting ).Steven was adopted by a man at the age of seven.family home.Prior to being referred to a psychiatric hospital, Steven had been in and out of the treatment center and in and out of the crisis center, being hospitalized several times for emotional breakdown.Steven was diagnosed with Bipolar disorder, ADHD, behavioral disorder, and post-traumatic depression disorder.Steven took several anti-psychiatric drugs and ADHD drugs.In the early days of Steven, he suffered physical and sexual abuse by adult men, physical and emotional neglect of his mother, domestic violence, drugs and short-lived conditions.The therapist in charge of Steven's case quickly suspected that Steven's behavioral and emotional problems, if not all, were mostly the result of severe childhood trauma.The therapist had several separate treatments with Steven and several family treatments with Steven and his adoptive father, and decided to try EMDR with Steven.Steven responded well to this intervention and many other game treatments.The therapist worked with the psychiatrist and slowly eliminated all the mental medications Steven was taking.Steven responded well to not taking the drug, and the mental diagnosis only became a post-traumatic mental disorder.Steven was discharged from the hospital after 6 months of treatment and the therapist continued to treat the case.home therapist.Steven's adoptive father is very supportive of him and is committed to trying every treatment technique suggested by the therapist.However, the school is less patient with Steven and his post-traumatic stress disorder is often triggered in the classroom.Triggers that trigger Steven's runaway tantrum include (1) being yelled at by an adult male, (2) being teased by other children, (3) having to read aloud or give answers in class, and (4) angry facial expressions.Steven was suspended from school many times for vandalism.Therapists improve themselves by using guided images, meditation, hypnosis tapes in collaboration with StevenRespect and learn the time to express emotions, and where these emotions are in him.Steven responded very well and the problem at school was reduced a bit at a time.Unfortunately, after a year and a half of treatment, puberty is very fast.Steven is getting taller and begins to ask a lot of questions about sex and how babies are born.Steven's father asked the therapist to talk to him about sex because Steven had been sexually abused many times when he was a child.The therapist spoke with Steven and dad about adolescence, how the baby was born and having sex.Steven answered awkwardly, but continued to ask questions.The therapist explains the difference between a good touch and a bad one, which leads to a conversation about sexual abuse.Steven talked about some very abusive things that happened to him, the therapist helped him understand that it was not his fault, and some people did very bad things to the children.Therapists use visualization techniques to help Steven find a happier, safer place before closing the meeting.Steven had a very powerful nightmare that night, and his father helped him calm down and feel safe again.However, the next day at school, Steven went through several melting times and had to go home early.The therapist came back to help Steven through the experience, brought him a sound machine, helped him sleep better at night, and used visualization to help Steven create a container visually, it has a padlock on it so he can put all the horrible ideas in before going to bed at night.When he feels stressed or depressed, he also starts to go to school with his calm cd.The following sessions focused on body awareness and sensory triggers.Steven is doing better at school with few problems.If there is a problem, he can calm down faster.Steven is now one year old and continues to work normally without medication, with no signs of ADHD or physical disorder.He joined several sports teams to help the body work and raise awareness and did a good job.His father, a school teacher, tutored him every night, and Steven caught up with his grade level academically.His father followed the therapist's advice, taught Steven to eat healthy, exercise, and used natural herbal products to help Steven maintain a hormonal balance in his teens.Recently, the therapist had a conversation with Steven, who discussed a nightmare he had the night before.He told the therapist that the padlock box in his bedroom was full and that he had nowhere to put it into his nightmare last night.The therapist asked him to go and get the box and she would take it home and put it in a safe place.Then she asked Steven to imagine another bigger box with a padlock inside.Steven has made great progress in recovering from complex post-traumatic depression and is now able to live a normal life as a normal teenager.However, he has not experienced all the trauma due to his age and comfort, so he needs to do so as much as possible.Fortunately, he has the psychological tools and support of a loving father to help him through everything in the future.Not many children can pass the level of abuse that Steven has experienced.He has a strong spiritual foundation that his adoptive father has shared with him and has a support system to understand the importance of physical/soul/spiritual connections.No matter what pattern of change you take advantage of, it is important to be aware of the position of the defense mechanism, such as numbness, separation, etc.Once in the customer's life to a life of gentle to slowly change to a new, healthy practice (estherington, 2005 )."The emotional reflex of the quick operation is unconscious and does not feel the sound unless during the wake-up period following the weakening of the anti-body response (Panksepp, 2002, p.226)."Because of this factor, a person, especially a teenager, may not understand why they do something until their behavior has passed.Helping adolescents find feelings and emotional awareness is an important first step in trauma therapy.All of the above treatments were designed to achieve this purpose.These strategies are designed to help adolescents deal with trauma at the level at which they are currently functioning and need to be adjusted slightly to accommodate the developmental stages of emotional, cognitive, psychological and social functioning.To do so, it is important to be able to integrate other treatment models, such as the CBT, as a help in teaching skills and determining the level of development.Capuzzi, D.& Gross, D.R.Psychological counseling and treatment: theory and intervention).Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Merrill Lynch Prentice Hall, 2007 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