What Are the Pharmaceutical Sources of Drugs - high quality medical grade skin care products-NOX B
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What Are the Pharmaceutical Sources of Drugs? - high quality medical grade skin care products

by:NOX BELLCOW     2019-11-02
What Are the Pharmaceutical Sources of Drugs?  -  high quality medical grade skin care products
Drug use can be traced back to 2,700 B, according to the records. C.
Middle East and China.
The most commonly used drugs are laxatives and resistance
Opium extract was used to relieve pain.
Anesthetic drugs for the treatment of respiratory diseases.
Until the beginning of the 20 th century, substances used to treat diseases were obtained from natural sources.
Natural resources include plants, animals and minerals.
In natural resources, plants are most frequently used.
Sometimes, minerals are used and animals are used occasionally for the same purpose.
Today, most of the drugs are made in the lab. e. synthetically.
Microorganisms are also the source of a large number of drugs.
So, what is the source of drugs? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Now, let's look at the sources of these drugs separately.
Believe it or not, there was a time ago when leaves with liver shape were used to treat liver disease.
Various parts of the plant, such as roots, bark, stems, leaves, seeds and flowers, were then used.
Drugs do not all come from the same part of a particular plant.
For example, heparin, caffeine, cocaine, digosin, and piloka were obtained from the leaves of a particular plant.
Palm oil, daffodil, morphine, stryine and cocoa were obtained from the seeds of some plants.
Cinnamon, quinine, and quinine were found in the bark of certain plants, and blood levels and atropine were extracted from the roots of some plants.
Today, plants themselves are rarely considered for medical use, with some exceptions.
But the active ingredients of their drugs (E. G. g.
Extract and use from roots.
Grouping according to the physiological active components of different plants
Chemical properties.
Some of these active ingredients can be extracted by soaking plants in alcohol.
Now, let's discuss in detail the active components of each group obtained from plants. 1.
The word Alkaloid (alkali class) literally means alkali-like substance.
Bioalkali is defined as a basic nitrogen compound from plant sources, 1) to produce salt when combined with acid, and 2) to have physiological activity in plants and animals. ine.
For example, both atropin, cocaine and morphine are alkaline drugs.
Most of the bio-alkaline substances are extracted from the seeds and roots of flowering plants.
There are only a few biological bases obtained or synthesized from flowers-free plants.
Some examples of synthetic bioalkali classes are APOD alkali and Homoid alkali.
Base compounds are widely classified according to plant sources. e.
Which plant did they get from.
Leonard Rauf. 1.
Atropine is an organic ester made of a combination of a token (organic alkali) and a tropical acid (aromatic acid.
On the other hand, East olamine alkali contains East scop alkali and tropical acid.
Scopine is different from the support because it has an oxygen bridge between the carbon atoms of the specified c1 and c2. 2.
The bark of the Golden Rooster tree contains a large amount of quinine.
Used as an anti-malaria, Fever Relief and pain relief agent. 3.
A large amount of cocaine was obtained (local anesthetic found for the first time) (0. 6 to 1.
Erythroxylon Coca-Cola.
It is an ester of benzoic acid and nitrogen. Including base. 4.
Grown up on rye and other grains. 5. ). 6. 7.
So far, this is all about the biological base.
Let's go ahead and discuss glycosides, which you may recall is the second group in our list of active ingredients for plant drugs. 2.
No.
Crystal solids that break down into sugar (one to four molecules) and non-sugar nitrogen, colorlesssugar parts.
They do not form salt.
Some are poisonous. The non-
Part of the sugar is called a match or a ginning.
Aglycone is made from the cyclopetophillips (steroid nucleus) attached to the unsaturated grease ring attached to the carbon atom designated c17.
It is chemically related to bile acids, cholesterol and steroid hormones.
The Pharmacology activity of a sugar is present in a sugar ketone or non-a sugar ketonesugar, part.
The combination of sugar with aglycone changed the lipid/water distribution coefficient, potency, and drug generation kinetic properties of the side.
Aglycone can be separated from the sugar part of the sugar by adding acid or enzymes.
Depending on the type of sugar present in the compound, sugar is classified as glucose, glalactosides, or fructose.
Some plants are widely distributed in bark, seeds and leaves.
) Is known as digitalis.
They have a powerful effect on the heart muscle.
In 1838, sa (positive hydrogen benzene acid) was obtained from salicin, a bitter ingredient found in willow bark for the first time ).
After hydrolysis, salicin produces glucose and sa alcohol.
Sa alcohol is then converted into sa acid.
The amino side contains the sugar Bond (-O-
) In their structure, but not considered as the side.
Let's go ahead and discuss oil, the third group in our list of active ingredients for plant drugs. 3.
Oil used as a drug can be divided into two types: fixed and volatile.
The fixed oil is a mixture of high molecular weight glycerin and fatty acids, especially soft fatty acid, hard acid and acid. It is non-
It is less volatile than water and is not soluble in water.
However, the fixed oil can be dissolved in methane and ether.
It will not dissipate by heat.
Interesting fact of fixing oil: the metabolites of castor sesame oil stimulate the intestinal mucosa, causing intestinal peristalsis and emptying.
They are used as catharsis.
Olive oil is usually edible and can be used as a moisturizer.
Volatile oil is an odor substance that exists in different parts of plants.
Since it evaporates when exposed to air at room temperature, it is called volatile or essential oil.
The word "required" is used because volatile oil represents the "essence" or odor component of the plant.
When fresh, the volatile oil is colorless, but it may be oxidized and re-oxidized when standing, causing the color to dim.
Therefore, it should be stored in a sealed cool and dry place, preferably in an amber glass container.
In chemistry, volatile oils usually contain hydrocarbons terpene or some of these polymers.
Terpen ENE diluted the most active compound present in the oil.
Interesting essential oil fact: the active ingredient of mint oil is mint alcohol.
In the case of clove oil, the active ingredient is clove oil.
Clove oil can relieve pain when applied locally (in the case of toothache.
Dongqing oil is used locally to relieve joint pain.
Mint oil and Louran oil are used as solvents and spices in prescription compounds.
Let's go ahead and discuss the gums, the fourth group in our list of active ingredients for plant drugs. 4.
Gums are a product of secreted hydrocarbons from plant sources.
Chemically speaking, they are cloudy or non-cloudy polysugar bodies, or slat of polysugar bodies, which produce sugar during hydrolysis.
The difference between the gums and mucus is that the gums are easily dissolved in water, while the mucus forms a sticky substance.
Examples of natural gums include qiongjiao and Mulian seeds.
When they are swallowed, they absorb water to form a volume and play a laxative role.
With regard to carbohydrates, this is the fifth and last group in our list of active ingredients for plant drugs. 5.
Carbohydrates are a major component of natural organic compounds.
Carbohydrates sucrose and other sugars such as glucose and fructose are used for many purposes.
Sufficient concentration (65%) of sucrose in aqueous solution is antibacterial and preservative.
Glucose is a nutrient that can be given as needed through an oral or intravenous injection.
Glucose is used as an ingredient in many preparations, such as glucose in water and glucose in salt water.
Glucose is used as a component of an anti-coagulation agent, such as glucose citrate sodium and citrate phosphate glucose solution.
These solutions are used to store whole blood.
Fructose is used for food in diabetic patients and may be particularly beneficial in diabetic poisoning.
Carbohydrate-related compound alcohol (70%) used as a preservative ).
This is the medicinal active ingredient of all the plants we list.
Now that you have a better understanding of the plant source of the drug, let's continue to discuss the animal and mineral sources.
In ancient China, people used dried clam skin to treat toothache and bleeding gums.
Later, it was found that the skin of the toad contains adrenaline.
Here are some facts about the source of animal drugs.
It is rich in omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin A and vitamin D.
Insulin is extracted from the pancreas of a cow or pig.
Immunoglobulin G is prepared by injecting an antigen into an animal and collecting antibodies formed as a response to the antigen.
Immunoglobulin (anti-serum) from animal sources is often associated with allergic reactions, which leads to its virtual abandonment.
Such as anti-gamma
Hit and fight.
It has been widely used in the past, but now because it can cause complications like serum diseases, its use is more restricted.
The serum has been replaced by human immunoglobulin.
Human immunoglobulin is made up of at least 1000 human plasma containing antibodies to measles, swine fever, hepatitis A and other viruses.
Injected human immunoglobulin produces immediate passive immunity lasting about 4 to 6 weeks.
Specific immunoglobulin (hepatitis B immunoglobulin, rabies immunoglobulin, gate tetanus immunoglobulin) is prepared by pooling the plasma of a specific donor with the high level of specific antibody required
Human menopause follicle-stimulating hormone (follicle-stimulating hormone) was isolated from the urine of post-menopausal women and contained a mixture of follicle-promoting hormone (LH) and progesterone (LH.
Human hCG is produced by the placenta and can be separated and purified from the urine of pregnant women.
The activity of HCG is almost the same as that of LH, but the sequence and carbohydrate content are different.
Heparin is usually extracted from the intestinal mucosa of pigs or from the lungs of cattle.
Minerals have been used to treat various diseases since ancient times.
Here are some facts about the source of minerals for drugs.
Early Greek doctors tried to treat weakness and anemia with iron.
Various types of clay are used to treat diarrhea.
One remedy is to powder the bowl with old clay pipes.
The main components of this pipeline are kaolin soil and activated carbon, both of which are used today to treat diarrhea.
Calomel is used to treat constipation.
It contains mercury and is found to have urination.
Digital therapy for heart failure.
After the treatment of syphilis with mercury compounds, the urination of Mercury was also observed.
Iodine is used to treat thyroid.
Gold is used to treat arthritis.
Sulfur is used outside of skin disease.
As an acid-resistant agent, aluminum hydroxide and magnesium trisi are widely used.
Hydrogen sulfide is used to relieve constipation and control seizures.
These are just a few of the many drug uses of minerals.
Now, let's go ahead and discuss the laboratory sources of the drugs.
Today, most drugs are artificially synthesized by two or more compounds or elements.
Drugs can be synthesized in part or in whole.
By adding pure chemicals, the structure of natural substances is changed, resulting in the production of some synthetic substances.
With the development of organic chemical industry, the synthesis of chemical substances in the laboratory has become extremely advanced.
In most cases, the drugs produced in the laboratory are of high quality, cheap and mass-produced in a short period of time, which is safer and more effective than the drugs extracted from plants or animals.
For example, 1 mg of ground Ned produced in the laboratory has the same pharmacology effect as 1000 mg of ground Ned produced in the thick leaves of purple foxgloves.
Most of the pain relief agents, chemotherapy drugs, reminders and local anesthetic currently used are produced in the laboratory.
Here are some facts about synthetic drugs.
The synthesis of aromatic amine begins with the synthesis of the original tontonoid dye.
One of the adverse reactions of the drug is hypoglycemia, which leads to the development of the drug.
Carbonic taozide (an anhydr enzyme inhibitor of carbonated acid), hydrochloramine and frusemide were also developed from benzamine.
Today, in non-diabetic patients, the use of thiocarase drugs to reduce blood sugar levels
Patients with insulin dependent diabetes
Human Insulin is produced through modification of pig insulin or by bacteria using recombinant DNA technology.
Insulin contains 51 amino acids in two chains A and B.
Chain A contains 21 am amino acids and chain B contains 30 amino acids.
Bovine insulin is different from human insulin at 3 amino acid sites, while pig insulin is different at 1 amino acid site.
By changing the amino acid, valvulaparin and glucose in the 30-bit pig insulin in the B chain, we can convert it into human insulin.
Compared with cow or pig insulin, human insulin is absorbed faster from the Administration site.
However, the duration of the action of human insulin is short and the dose must be adjusted.
The actual production of insulin (see figure below) involves the introduction of human insulin genes into non-.
Isolation of insulin genes from chromosomes using restrictive enzymes.
Bacteria containing human genes are then cultured in a large amount of nutrients until they are ready to extract insulin from them.
1948, antibiotics 7-.
Catalytic removal of 7-chlorine
Chlorin is formed.
Better than 7-
And has been replaced.
The study of the structure and synthesis of penicillin led to the development of naturally synthesized penicillin, which later developed to cephalosporin. Well-
The antibiotics known to be produced by actin are actin, amphotericin, chloramphenicol, penicillin, neaccording, Qingnian night,
The fungus group produces antibiotics such as penicillin, gray yellow bacteria and cephalosporin.
The production of antibiotics such as polyvisonyl B and bacterial peptide.
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